The weight of the gun meant that only large vehicles could move it, the Sd.Kfz. [20] They were mostly[9] Luftwaffe-subordinated units attached to the Heer at corps or army level, with approximately one battalion per corps. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. In September 1916, the British unveiled their new weapon to the world – The Tank – which, while slow and mechanically unreliable, sent shockwaves through the ranks of the German military. The first solution saw the Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, more commonly called the K Bullet, being issued in larger quantities. The 79th Field Artillery Battalion (Provisional) was formed from personnel of the 79th and 179th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage. Cartridges use lacquered steel cases and a percussion primer. Indeed, with the automatic loading system, the gun layers' job was to keep the gun barrel trained on the target area based on the signals from the controller. This early model, the Flak 18, used a single-piece barrel with a length of 56 calibers, leading to the commonly seen designation L/56. Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. The gun would then fire and recoil; during the return stroke, the empty case would be thrown backward by levers, after which a cam would engage and recock the gun. While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.8 cm Flak and partly with the 7.5 cm kanon (75/50 in the Italian name). The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. Between them and Italian 155 mm (6-inch) shore batteries the destroyer HMS Sikh was so severely damaged that she sank while being towed by HMS Zulu. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.8 cm Gerät 42 proposal, which was not accepted for production as an anti-aircraft gun. The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. The KwK 36 (abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36) was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. Motorcycles & Bicycles 10. [9] Repeated high tank loss from well-placed 8.8 cm Flak guns in the battles of Halfaya Pass earned it the nickname "Hellfire Pass". Artillery 9. Jeeps 4. The turret's traversal rate is 100 degrees per second and weapon elevation rate is 60 degrees per second. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. Starting from October 1942, several batteries, while remaining in German possession, were used by Italian personnel (officers and troops) for the protection of military infrastructures and cities, this practice was further intensified in 1943, reaching more than 100 batteries. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. [citation needed]. Paint & Canvas 13. Chow, Roy "Mistakes and Myths in German 8.8cm Flak Identification", German Flak Defences vs Allied Heavy Bombers: 1942–45 [9], The guns were usually equipped with a Kommandogerät system, which was an analog gunnery computer. Chinese Type 56 and Type 58 heavy machine guns, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 23:56. The PaK 43 (an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43[35][36]) used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. It is a triple-barreled, electric-powered, linkless, belt-fed weapon. Plant & Equipment 16. [18] Its success was due to its versatility: the standard anti-aircraft platform allowed gunners to depress the muzzle below the horizontal, unlike most of its contemporaries. [4] Both modes of operation made the gun much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the basic concept of the blitzkrieg. "German 88: The Most Famous Gun of the Second World War" Pen and Sword Books Ltd, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 05:24. Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston (PAK 43 and Flak 37). It was the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. [24] The batteries were supplied complete with a Zeiss firing station Mod. The Lahti L-39 is a Finnish 20 mm anti-tank rifle used during the Second World War.It had excellent accuracy, penetration and range, but its size made transportation difficult. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun. Radio Equipment 14. This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.[17]. Anyone know anymore info please let me know. Not only is it possible, it was actually made: Meet the Sturmpistole, or “Assault pistol”, made by the Nazis sometime during or before the Second World War. II and GL Mk. The projectile weighs 64.4 grams and is 51 millimeters long with a 38.7 gram core of tungsten carbide with 1.8 grams of … The Panzer III's 37 mm was considered a good anti-tank gun in 1940. 8 heavy tractor. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. One 76 mm hole in outrigger. The 8.8 cm Flak in the anti-tank role was arguably most effective in the flat and open terrain of Libya, Egypt and the eastern front. Tank Driving & Training 17. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. In 1937, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River. Krupp had the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921. [31], During the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, various Flak guns were used, mainly by the naval artillery of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). [9] This was twice as many heavy AA guns as the Air Defence of Great Britain (ADGB) had at the time, with France and the United States having even fewer. Watch Queue Queue Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake. The Panzer II carried a 20 mm autocannon. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. It was used successfully by Hero of the Soviet Union Sergeant Yakov Pavlov during the Battle of Stalingrad when the NCO led the defence of Pavlov's House in the city. Tank guns can typically fire a range of different projectiles, most commonly including anti-armour and multipurpose types, the latter used to engage light vehicles, personnel, and fortifications. Beginning in 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union. 100 Bullet HD Wallpapers and Background Images. As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. The M41 LAAG is the main weapon of the M12 Warthog LRV and the M312 "Elephant" HRV (although the Elephant's M41 has a slightly faster rate of fire). [10] The first such German gun was introduced in 1917, using the 8.8 cm caliber common in the Kaiserliche Marine (navy).[9]. When the U.S. Army's M3 Stuart and M4 Sherman tanks pursued, concealed German guns picked them off at ranges far beyond those of their 37 mm and 75 mm guns respectively. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. The designers started again, using 88 mm caliber. Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, 556 in all. Lulu Publishing. [15] An American tanker who survived losing three tanks wrote to Chrysler after V-E Day that "an 88 sure makes quick work of them. The Flak 18/36/37 was roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts. The M41 works well for … Of special note are the new Chinese armor-piercing types:[4], Heavy machine gun and anti-materiel rifle cartridge, Post WWII Ammunition Russian Ammunition Page, "PLA Mechanised Infantry Division Air Defence Systems", "Iran unveils new tactical vehicle, sniper rifle",×114mm&oldid=996177977, Weapons and ammunition introduced in 1941, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, DGJ-02 SLAP: Chinese copy of the 20×100mm Hispano round, DGJ02: APIDS-T cartridges use 45 g tungsten penetrator, wrapped in discarding sabots (similar to the US military. These cannons played an important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944. More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. [N 3]. D97/1+ Geräteliste, Oberkommando des Heeres, Heereswaffenamt, s.45, Berlin 1.7.43, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Australian Armoured Corps Memorial and Army Tank Museum, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Historical Military Museum of Cartagena (Spain), United States Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, National Museum of the United States Air Force, signalers' phonetic spelling of letters "AA", "The Rise of North Vietnam's Air Defenses", "Lexikon der Wehrmacht - Fugabwehrwaffen (Flak)", "TM E9-369A: German 88-mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, June 29, 1943 (Lone Sentry)", "Free Web Hosting – Unlimited Web Space and Transfer with PHP Mysql and No Popups or Banners", "German Weapon and Ammunition Production",, "In Defense of The Chongqing Sky: Chinese Anti-Aircraft Units Operating German Anti-Aircraft Guns in 1941", "FINNISH ARMY 1918–1945: ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS PART 3", "U.S. Military Intelligence Report: German Anti-Aircraft Artillery", "Chapitre 7 - Les FTA françaises dans la Reconquête", "Chapitre 9 - Équipements et recherches techniques d'après-guerre, en France", "Cañones para Hitler en A Coruña: el Monte de San Pedro", US Military Intelligence document on the 88 mm gun, Detailed examination of the effect of 88 mm FlaK on B-17 and B-24 bombers, Technical Manual German 88 mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – US War Department, 29 June 1943, Extract from "Handbuch für den Flakartilleristen" – Die 8.8 cm – Flak 1939, Lance-grenade individuel Mle F1 (LGI Mle F1),, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, One, 32 grooves with right-hand increasing twist from 1/45 to 1/30. This experience also demonstrated a number of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities. The later model was the Flak 37, which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily. The new gun fired a 9.4-kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s (3,280 ft/s), giving it an effective ceiling of 11,300 meters (37,100 ft) and a maximum of 14,700 meters (48,200 ft), which General der Flakartillerie Otto Wilhelm von Renz said to be "almost equal to the 128-mm. It quickly proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. The earliest and most simple anti-tank shell was the basic armor piercing, or AP, shell. The Mauser 13.2mm TuF (German: Tank und Flieger; lit. Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. By February 1945, there were 327 heavy anti-aircraft batteries facing the Red Army, which was 21 percent of those used for anti-aircraft defense.[9]. The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the heavy battalions were rarely used in practice. DGE02: APHEI cartridges weigh between 175 and 188 g. At 1,000 m it is quoted as having a 90 percent chance of being able to penetrate 15 mm of armour plate set at 30°. [N 4] It totaled 12 such guns on average, supplemented by light guns. At 300 m after penetrating a 2 mm soft steel plate (representing an aircraft skin) it can further penetrate a 1.2 mm-thick steel plate producing 20 fragments. Trailers 8. Casualties among the legion's 88 mm gun batteries in the Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots. The less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable for long-range AT guns. Penetration of the Pzgr. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. 30mm projectile for some type of machine gun. Rheinmetall responded with a new 88 mm design with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel. Stuff : Insta : Light Vehicles 3. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. Boys Anti-Tank Rifle: Mk I and Mk I* Improvements April 11, 2019 Ian McCollum 17 These rifles are lots #1087 and #1088 at Morphy’s April 2019 auction: The Boys Anti-Tank Rifle was adopted by the British military in 1937, and remained in production until 1943 when it was replaced by […] Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. $8,995 This gun would be very hard to upgrade. The Lahti L-39 is a Finnish 20mm anti-tank rifle used during World War II. Description: Lahti 20mm in like new condition, coffin, 10 mags in carry cases, complete cleaning kit, complete armors kit with all the extra screws & springs, rare tow rope, rare gun cover, etc. It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8.8 cm Flak one of the great World War II anti-tank guns. It fires 450 to 550 12.7x99mm armor penetrating rounds per minute. The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage. [21] The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. Tyres & Tracks 12. This video is unavailable. Upon explosion between 75 and 95 incendiary pieces are formed which have an 80% chance of igniting aviation fuel. The Flak 18's carriage allowed it to fire in an emergency when still on its wheels and without its outriggers, but with a very limited traverse and elevation. [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. The spoken version was. Westermann, Edward B (2001). This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. As the MG 18 machine gun was being developed, an anti-tank rifle was also proposed. Following the Spanish Civil War, more Flak 36 models arrived in 1943 (88 guns 88/56 mm Flak-36) and since 1943 they were manufactured under license in Trubia under the denomination FT 44 (about 200 guns). Two different versions of bullet series are known, the earlier had a conventional bullet jacket with boat-tail. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence. Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8.8 cm Flak was tactically arranged into batteries, usually four guns to each. [4] Its successful use as an improvised anti-tank gun led to the development of a tank gun based upon it: the 8.8 cm KwK 36, with the "KwK" abbreviation standing for Kampfwagen-Kanone (literally "battle vehicle cannon", or "fighting vehicle cannon"), meant to be placed in a gun turret as the tank's primary armament. Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time. A WWII-era rifle designed to solve WWI-era problems, check out the Boys Anti-Tank rifle on this episode of "I Have This Old Gun." [13], Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis. The Mauser 13 mm anti-tank rifle (German: Tankgewehr ... and found that the standard armour-piercing 7.92 mm K bullet was no longer effective. In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. The versatile carriage allowed the 8.8 cm FlaK to be fired in a limited anti-tank mode when still on its wheels;[4] it could be completely emplaced in only two and a half minutes. C&R eligible or Form 3 or 4 Land Rovers 5. Submit ; Cool Stuff; English Login; Register; Wallpaper Abyss Weapons Bullet. [citation needed] The use of the 88 mm in direct support of the infantry brought the gun crews in close proximity to the enemy and made the crews susceptible to infantry fire. Buy 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet Reviews : You finding where to buy 1 Moa Rifle And Anti Tank Rifle Bullet for Compared to other artillery types, German industry built for example, 570 heavy (caliber 88–128 mm) flak guns, 1,020 field artillery pieces (caliber 75–210 mm), and 1,300 tank guns, anti-tank guns, plus self-propelled guns in December 1943. As well first solution saw the Spitzgeschoss mit Kern, more commonly called the K bullet, being in... In February 1944 penetrators, or kinetic energy penetrators in Italy and Northern France was less for. Shooting supplies: the complete Organisational and Statistical Analysis, and Military Simulation Volume IIB unit outperformed the mm... Cartridges use lacquered steel cases and a percussion primer angled armour shield to provide better protection the. Big game, like the Elephant gun Bofors since 1921 and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during Italian. 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